Archive for the ‘Harmony’ Category

Measuring Instruments as Media for the Expression of Creative Passions in Education

June 26, 2015

Measurement is often viewed as a reduction of complex phenomena to numbers. It is accordingly also often conceived as mechanical, and disconnected from the world of life. Educational examinations are seen by many as an especially egregious form of inappropriate reduction. This perspective is contradicted, however, by a perspective that sees an analogy between educational assessment and music. Calibrated instruments, mathematical scales, and high technology play key roles in the production of music, which, ironically, is widely considered the most alive, captivating and emotionally powerful of the arts. Though behavioral psychology has indeed learned how to use music to manipulate consumer purchasing decisions, music is unabashedly accepted nonetheless as the highest expression of passion in art.

The question then arises as to if and how measurement in other areas, such as in education, might be conceived, designed, and practiced as a medium for the expression and fulfillment of creative passions. Key issues involved in substantively realizing a musical metaphor in human and social measurement include capacities to tune instruments, to define common scales, to score performances, to orchestrate harmonious relationships, to enhance choral grace note effects, and to combine elements in unique but pleasing and recognizable rhythmic arrangements.

Practical methods for making educational measurement the medium for the expression of creative passions for learning are in place in thousands of schools nationally and internationally. With such tools in hand, formative applications of integrated instruction and assessment could be conceived as intuitive media for composing and conducting expressions of creative passions. Student outcomes in reading, mathematics, and other domains may then come to be seen in terms of portfolios of works akin to those produced by musicians, sculptors, film makers, or painters.

Hundreds of thousands of books and millions of articles tuned to the same text complexity scale, for instance, provide readers an extensive palette of colorful tones and timbres for expressing their desires and capacities for learning. Graphical presentations of individual students’ outcomes, as well as outcomes aggregated by classroom, school, district, etc., could be presented, interpreted and experienced as public performances of artful developmental narratives enabling dramatic performances of personal uniqueness and social generality.

Measurement instrumentation in education is able to capture, aggregate, and organize literacy, numeracy, socio-emotional intelligence, and other performances into special portfolios documenting the play and dance of emerging new understandings. As in any creative process, accidents, errors, and idiosyncratic patterns of strengths and weaknesses may evoke powerful and dramatic expressions of beauty, and human and social value. And just as members of musical ensembles may complement one another’s skills, using rhythm and harmony to improve each others’ playing abilities in practice, so, too, instruments of formative assessment tuned to the same scale can be used to coordinate and enhance individual student and teacher skill levels.

Possibilities for orchestrating such performances across educational, health care, social service, environmental management, and other fields could similarly take advantage of existing instrument calibration and measurement technologies.

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Measurement as a Medium for the Expression of Creative Passions in Education

April 23, 2014

Measurement is often viewed as a purely technical task involving a reduction of complex phenomena to numbers. It is accordingly also experienced as mechanical in nature, and disconnected from the world of life. Educational examinations are often seen as an especially egregious form of inappropriate reduction.

This perspective on measurement is contradicted, however, by the essential roles of calibrated instrumentation, mathematical scales, and high technology in the production of music, which, ironically, is widely considered the most alive, captivating and emotionally powerful of the arts.

The question then arises as to if and how measurement in other areas, such as in education, might be conceived, designed, and practiced as a medium for the expression and fulfillment of creative passions. Key issues involved in substantively realizing a musical metaphor in human and social measurement include capacities to tune instruments, to define common scales, to orchestrate harmonious relationships, to enhance choral grace note effects, and to combine elements in unique but pleasing and recognizable forms.

Practical methods of this kind are in place in hundreds of schools nationally and internationally. With such tools in hand, formative applications of integrated instruction and assessment could be conceived as intuitive media for composing and conducting expressions of creative passions.

Student outcomes in reading, mathematics, and other domains may then come to be seen in terms of portfolios of works akin to those produced by musicians, sculptors, film makers, or painters. Hundreds of thousands of books and millions of articles tuned to the same text complexity scale provide readers an extensive palette of colorful tones and timbres for expressing their desires and capacities for learning. Graphical presentations of individual students’ outcomes, as well as outcomes aggregated by classroom, school, district, etc., may be interpreted and experienced as public performances of artful developmental narratives enabling dramatic performances of personal uniqueness and social generality.

Technical canvases capture, aggregate, and organize literacy performances into special portfolios documenting the play and dance of emerging new understandings. As in any creative process, accidents, errors, and idiosyncratic patterns of strengths and weaknesses may evoke powerful expressions of beauty, and human and social value. Just as members of musical ensembles may complement one another’s skills, using rhythm and harmony to improve each others’ playing abilities in practice, so, too, instruments of formative assessment tuned to the same scale can be used to enhance individual teacher skill levels.

Possibilities for orchestrating such performances across educational, health care, social service, environmental management, and other fields could similarly take advantage of existing instrument calibration and measurement technologies.

Creatively Expressing How Love Matters for Justice: Setting the Stage and Tuning the Instruments

April 16, 2014

Nussbaum (2013) argues about the political importance of connecting with our bodies without shame and disgust, and of the relevance musical and poetic public expressions of varieties of love offer to conceptions of justice. Institutions embodying principles of loving justice require media integrating emotional expression with technical calculation, in exactly the same way music does. Being able to dance at the revolution demands instruments tuned to shared scales, no matter if equal temperament, just intonation, meantone tuning, or any of a variety of other well, or irregular, temperaments are chosen.

The physicality of dancing, so often evoking romance and courtship, provides a point of entry to a metaphoric logic of reproduction applicable to the Socratic midwifery of ideas and to the products of social intercourse. Tuning the instruments of the human, social, and environmental arts and sciences to harmonize and choreograph relationships may then enable formulation of nonreductionist approaches to the problem of how to reconcile political emotions with physical or geometrical accounts of the scales of justice.

Historical accounts of (musical, medical, electrical, etc.) metrological standards describe ways in which passionate concern for shared vulnerabilities and common joys have sometimes succeeded in deploying systems realizing higher forms of just relations (Alder, 2002; Berg and Timmermans, 2000;  Isacoff, 2001; Schaffer, 1992). The question of the day is whether we will succeed in creating yet new forms of such relations in the many areas of life where they are needed.

Yes, as Nussbaum (2013, p. 396) admits, the demand for love is a tall order, and unrealistic. But all heuristic fictions, from Pythagorean triangles to the mathematical pendulum, are unrealistic and are never actually observed in practice, as has been pointed out by a number of historians and philosophers (Butterfield 1957, pp. 16-17; Heidegger, 1967, p. 89; Rasch, 1960, pp. 37-38, 1973/2011). These fictions are, however, eminently useful as guides, goals, and as coherent ways of telling our stories, and that is the criterion by which they should be judged.

 

Alder, K. (2002). The measure of all things: The seven-year odyssey and hidden error that transformed the world. New York: The Free Press.

Berg, M., & Timmermans, S. (2000). Order and their others: On the constitution of universalities in medical work. Configurations, 8(1), 31-61.

Butterfield, H. (1957). The origins of modern science (revised edition). New York: The Free Press.

Heidegger, M. (1967). What is a thing? (W. B. Barton, Jr. & V. Deutsch, Trans.). South Bend, Indiana: Regnery/Gateway.

Isacoff, S. M. (2001). Temperament: The idea that solved music’s greatest riddle. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Nussbaum, M. (2013). Political emotions: Why love matters for justice. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Rasch, G. (1960). Probabilistic models for some intelligence and attainment tests (Reprint, with Foreword and Afterword by B. D. Wright, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980). Copenhagen, Denmark: Danmarks Paedogogiske Institut.)

Rasch, G. (1973/2011, Spring). All statistical models are wrong! Comments on a paper presented by Per Martin-Löf, at the Conference on Foundational Questions in Statistical Inference, Aarhus, Denmark, May 7-12, 1973. Rasch Measurement Transactions, 24(4), 1309 [http://www.rasch.org/rmt/rmt244.pdf].

Schaffer, S. (1992). Late Victorian metrology and its instrumentation: A manufactory of Ohms. In R. Bud & S. E. Cozzens (Eds.), Invisible connections: Instruments, institutions, and science (pp. 23-56). Bellingham, WA: SPIE Optical Engineering Press.

How bad will the financial crises have to get before…?

April 30, 2010

More and more states and nations around the world face the possibility of defaulting on their financial obligations. The financial crises are of epic historical proportions. This is a disaster of the first order. And yet, it is so odd–we have the solutions and preventative measures we need at our finger tips, but no one knows about them or is looking for them.

So,  I am persuaded to once again wonder if there might now be some real interest in the possibilities of capitalizing on

  • measurement’s well-known capacity for reducing transaction costs by improving information quality and reducing information volume;
  • instruments calibrated to measure in constant units (not ordinal ones) within known error ranges (not as though the measures are perfectly precise) with known data quality;
  • measures made meaningful by their association with invariant scales defined in terms of the questions asked;
  • adaptive instrument administration methods that make all measures equally precise by targeting the questions asked;
  • judge calibration methods that remove the person rating performances as a factor influencing the measures;
  • the metaphor of transparency by calibrating instruments that we really look right through at the thing measured (risk, governance, abilities, health, performance, etc.);
  • efficient markets for human, social, and natural capital by means of the common currencies of uniform metrics, calibrated instrumentation, and metrological networks;
  • the means available for tuning the instruments of the human, social, and environmental sciences to well-tempered scales that enable us to more easily harmonize, orchestrate, arrange, and choreograph relationships;
  • our understandings that universal human rights require universal uniform measures, that fair dealing requires fair measures, and that our measures define who we are and what we value; and, last but very far from least,
  • the power of love–the back and forth of probing questions and honest answers in caring social intercourse plants seminal ideas in fertile minds that can be nurtured to maturity and Socratically midwifed as living meaning born into supportive ecologies of caring relations.

How bad do things have to get before we systematically and collectively implement the long-established and proven methods we have at our disposal? It is the most surreal kind of schizophrenia or passive-aggressive avoidance pathology to keep on tormenting ourselves with problems for which we have solutions.

For more information on these issues, see prior blogs posted here, the extensive documentation provided, and http://www.livingcapitalmetrics.com.

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LivingCapitalMetrics Blog by William P. Fisher, Jr., Ph.D. is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License.
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Tuning our assessment instruments to harmonize our relationships

January 10, 2010

“Music is the art of measuring well.”
Augustine of Hippo

With the application of Rasch’s probabilistic models for measurement, we are tuning the instruments of the human, social, and environmental sciences, with the aim of being able to harmonize relationships of all kinds. This is not an empty metaphor: the new measurement scales are equivalent, mathematically, with the well-tempered, and later 12-tone equal temperament, scales that were introduced in response to the technological advances associated with the piano.

The idea that the regular patterns found in music are akin to those found in the world at large and in the human psyche is an ancient one. The Pythagoreans held that

“…music’s concordances [were] the covenants that tones form under heaven’s watchful eye. For the Pythagoreans, though, the importance of these special proportions went well beyond music. They were signs of the natural order, like the laws governing triangles; music’s rules were simply the geometry governing things in motion: not only vibrating strings but also celestial bodies and the human soul” (Isacoff, 2001, p. 38).

I have already elsewhere in this blog elaborated on the progressive expansion of geometrical thinking into natural laws and measurement models; now, let us turn our attention to music as another fertile source of the analogies that have proven so productive over the course of the history of science (also explored elsewhere in this blog).

You see, tuning systems up to the invention of the piano (1709) required instruments to be retuned for performers to play in different keys. Each key had a particular characteristic color to its sound. And not only that, some note pairings in any key (such as every twelfth 5th in the mean tone tuning) were so dissonant that they were said to howl, and were referred to as wolves. Composers went out of their way to avoid putting these notes together, or used them in rare circumstances for especially dramatic effects.

Dozens of tuning systems had been proposed in the 17th century, and the concept of an equal-temperament scale was in general currency at the time of the piano’s invention. Bach is said to have tuned his own keyboards so that he could switch keys fluidly from within a composition. His “Well-Tempered Clavier” (published in 1722) demonstrates how a well temperament allows one to play in all 24 major and minor keys without retuning the instrument. Bach also is said to have deliberately used wolf note pairings to show that they did not howl in the way they did with the mean tone tuning.

Equal temperament is not equal-interval in the Pythagorean sense of same-sized changes in the frequencies of vibrating strings. Rather, those frequencies are scaled using the natural logarithm, and that logarithmic scale is what is divided into equal intervals. This is precisely what is also done in Rasch scaling algorithms applied to test, assessment, and survey data in contemporary measurement models.

Pianos are tuned from middle C out, with each sequential pair of notes to the left and right tuned to be the same distance away from C. As the tuner moves further and further away from C, the unit distance of the notes from middle C is slightly adjusted or stretched, so that the sharps and flats become the same note in the black keys.

What is being done, in effect, is that the natural logarithm of the note frequencies is being taken. In statistics, the natural logarithm is called a two-stretch transformation, because it pulls both ends of the normal distribution’s bell curve away from the center, with the ends being pulled further than the regions under the curve closer to the center. This stretching effect is of huge importance to measurement because it makes it possible for different collections of questions addressing the same thing to measure in the same unit.

That is, the instrument dependency of summed ratings or counts of right answers  or categorical response frequencies is like a key-dependent tuning system. The natural logarithm modulates transitions across musical notes in such a way as to make different keys work in the same scaling system, and it also modulates transitions across different reading tests so that they all measure in a unit that remains the same size with the same meaning.

Now, many people fear that the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, health, etc. must inherently involve a meaningless reduction of richly varied and infinite experience to a number. Many people are violently opposed to any suggestion that this could be done in a meaningful and productive way. However, is not music the most emotionally powerful and subtle art form in existence, and simultaneously also incredibly high-tech and mathematical? Even if you ignore the acoustical science and the studio electronics, the instruments themselves embody some of the oldest and most intensively studied mathematical principles in existence.

And, yes, these principles are used in TV, movies, dentists’ offices and retail stores to help create sympathies and environments conducive to the, sometimes painful and sometimes crass, commercial tasks at hand. But music is also by far the most popular art form, and it is accessible everywhere to everyone any time precisely as a result of the very technologies that many consider anathema in the human and social sciences.

But it seems to me that the issue is far more a matter of who controls the technology than it is one of the technology itself. In the current frameworks of the human and social sciences, and of the economic domains of human, social, and natural capital, whoever owns the instrument owns the measurement system and controls the interpretation of the data, since each instrument measures in its own unit. But in the new Rasch technology’s open architecture, anyone willing to master the skills needed can build instruments tuned to the reference standard, ubiquitous and universally available scale. What is more, the demand that all instruments measuring the same thing must harmonize will transfer control of data interpretation to a public sphere in which experimental reproducibility trumps authoritarian dictates.

This open standards system will open the door to creativity and innovation on a par with what musicians take for granted. Common measurement scales will allow people to jam out in an infinite variety of harmonic combinations, instrumental ensembles, choreographed moves, and melodic and rhythmic patterns. Just as music ranges from jazz to symphonic, rock to punk to hiphop to blues to country to techno, or atonal to R & B, so, too, do our relationships. A whole new world of potential innovations opens up in the context of methods for systematically evaluating naturally occurring and deliberately orchestrated variations in organizations, management, HR training methods, supply lines, social spheres, environmental quality, etc.

The current business world’s near-complete lack of comparable information on human, social, and natural capital is oppressive. It puts us in the situation of never knowing what we get for our money in education and healthcare, even as costs in these areas spiral into absolutely stratospheric levels. Having instruments in every area of education, health care, recreation, employment, and commerce tuned to common scales will be liberating, not oppressive. Having clear, reproducible, meaningful, and publicly negotiated measures of educational and clinical care outcomes, of productivity and innovation, and of trust, loyalty, and environmental quality will be a boon.

In conclusion, consider one more thing. About 100 years ago, a great many musicians and composers revolted against what they felt were the onerous and monotonous constraints of the equal-tempered tuning system. Thus we had an explosion of tonal and rhythmic innovations across the entire range of musical artistry. With the global popularity of world music’s blending of traditional forms with current technology and Western forms, the use of alternatives to equal temperament has never been greater. I read once that Joni Mitchell has used something like 32 different tunings in her recordings. Jimi Hendrix and Neil Young are also famous for using unique tunings to define their trademark sounds. What would the analogy of this kind of creativity be in the tuning of tests and surveys? I don’t know, but I’m looking forward to seeing it, experiencing it, and maybe even contributing to it. Les Paul may not be the only innovator in instrument design who figured out not only how to make it easy for others to express themselves in measured tones, but who also knew how to rock out his own yayas!

References and further reading:

Augustine of Hippo. (1947/2002). On music. In Writings of Saint Augustine Volume 2. Immortality of the soul and other works. (L. Schopp, Trans.) (pp. 169-384). New York: Catholic University of America Press.

Barbour, J. M. (2004/1954). Tuning and temperament: A historical survey. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications.

Heelan, P. A. (1979). Music as basic metaphor and deep structure in Plato and in ancient cultures. Journal of Social and Biological Structures, 2, 279-291.

Isacoff, S. M. (2001). Temperament: The idea that solved music’s greatest riddle. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Jorgensen, O. (1991). Tuning: Containing the perfection of eighteenth-century temperament, the lost art of nineteenth-century temperament and the science of equal temperament. East Lansing, Michigan: Michigan State University.

Kivy, P. (2002). Introduction to a philosophy of music. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Mathieu, W. A. (1997). Harmonic experience: Tonal harmony from its natural origins to its modern expression. Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions International.

McClain, E. (1984/1976). The myth of invariance: The origin of the gods, mathematics and music from the Rg Veda to Plato (P. A. Heelan, Ed.). York Beach, Maine: Nicolas-Hays, Inc.

Russell, G. (2001/1953). Lydian chromatic concept of tonal organization (4th ed.). Brookline, MA: Concept Publishing.

Stone, M. (2002, Autumn). Musical temperament. Rasch Measurement Transactions, 16(2), 873.

Sullivan, A. T. (1985). The seventh dragon: The riddle of equal temperament. Lake Oswego, OR: Metamorphous Press.

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LivingCapitalMetrics Blog by William P. Fisher, Jr., Ph.D. is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License.
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Just posted on the LinkedIn Human Performance Discussion on the art and science of measurement

December 16, 2009

Great question and discussion!

Business performance measurement and management ought to be a blend of art and science akin to music–the most intuitive and absorbing of the arts and simultaneously reliant on some of the most high tech precision instrumentation available.

Unfortunately, the vast majority of the numbers used in HR and marketing are not scientific. Despite the fact that highly scientific  instruments for intangibles measurement have been available for decades, this is generally true in two ways. First, measures of some qualitative substance that really adds up the way numbers do have to be read off a calibrated instrument. Most surveys and assessments used in business are not calibrated. Second, once instruments measuring a particular thing are calibrated, to be fully scientific they all have to be linked together in a metric system so that everyone everywhere thinks and acts together in a common language.

The advantages of taking the trouble to calibrate and link instruments are numerous. The history of industry is the history of the ways we have capitalized on standardized technologies. A whole new economy is implied by our capacity to vastly improve the measurement and management of human, social, and natural capital.

The research on the integration of qualitative substance and quantitative precision in meaningful measurement is extensive. My most recent publication appeared in the November 2009 issue of Measurement (Elsevier): doi:10.1016/j.measurement.2009.03.014.

For more information, see some of my published papers and the references cited in them at http://www.livingcapitalmetrics.com/researchpapers.html.

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LivingCapitalMetrics Blog by William P. Fisher, Jr., Ph.D. is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License.
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Contrasting Network Communities: Transparent, Efficient, and Invested vs Not

November 30, 2009

Different networks and different communities have different amounts of social capital going for them. As was originally described by Putnam (1993), some networks are organized hierarchically in a command-and-control structure. The top layers here are the autocrats, nobility, or bosses who run the show. Rigid conformity is the name of the game to get by. Those in power can make or break anyone. Market transactions in this context are characterized by the thumb on the scale, the bribe, and the kickback. Everyone is watching out for themselves.

At the opposite extreme are horizontal networks characterized by altruism and a sense that doing what’s good for everyone will eventually come back around to be good for me. The ideal here is a republic in which the law rules and everyone has the same price of entry into the market.

What I’d like to focus on is what’s going on in these horizontal networks. What makes one a more tightly-knit community than another? The closeness people feel should not be oppressive or claustrophic or smothering. I’m thinking of community relations in which people feel safe, not just personally but creatively. How and when are diversity, dissent and innovation not just tolerated but celebrated? What makes it possible for a market in new ideas and new ways of doing things to take off?

And how does a community like this differ from another one that is just as horizontally structured but that does not give rise to anything at all creative?

The answers to all of these questions seem to me to hinge on the transparency, efficiency, and volume of investments in the relationships making up the networks. What kinds of investments? All kinds: emotional, social, intellectual, financial, spiritual, etc. Less transparent, inefficient, and low volume investments don’t have the thickness or complexity of the relationships that we can see through, that are well lubricated, and that are reinforced with frequent visits.

Putnam (1993, p. 183) has a very illuminating way of putting this: “The harmonies of a choral society illustrate how voluntary collaboration can create value that no individual, no matter how wealthy, no matter how wily, could produce alone.” Social capital is the coordination of thought and behavior that embodies trust, good will, and loyalty. Social capital is at play when an individual can rely on a thickly elaborated network of largely unknown others who provide clean water, nutritious food, effective public health practices (sanitation, restaurant inspections, and sewers), fire and police protection, a fair and just judiciary, electrical and information technology, affordably priced consumer goods, medical care, and who ensure the future by educating the next generation.

Life would be incredibly difficult if we could not trust others to obey traffic laws, or to do their jobs without taking unfair advantage of access to special knowledge (credit card numbers, cash, inside information), etc. But beyond that, we gain huge efficiencies in our lives because of the way our thoughts and behaviors are harmonized and coordinated on mass scales. We just simply do not have to worry about millions of things that are being taken care of, things that would completely freeze us in our tracks if they weren’t being done.

Thus, later on the same page, Putnam also observes that, “For political stability, for government effectiveness, and even for economic progress social capital may be even more important than physical or human capital.” And so, he says, “Where norms and networks of civic engagement are lacking, the outlook for collective action appears bleak.”

But what if two communities have identical norms and networks, but they differ in one crucial way: one relies on everyday language, used in conversations and written messages, to get things done, and the other has a new language, one with a heightened capacity for transparent meaningfulness and precision efficiency? Which one is likely to be more creative and innovative?

The question can be re-expressed in terms of Gladwell’s (2000) sense of the factors contributing to reaching a tipping point: the mavens, connectors, salespeople, and the stickiness of the messages. What if the mavens in two communities are equally knowledgeable, the connectors just as interconnected, and the salespeople just as persuasive, but messages are dramatically less sticky in one community than the other? In one network of networks, saying things once gets the right response 99% of the time, but in the other things have to be repeated seven times before the right response comes back even 50% of the time, and hardly anyone makes the effort to repeat things that many times. Guess which community will be safer, more creative, and thriving?

All of this, of course, is just another way to bring out the importance of improved measurement for improving network quality and community life. As Surowiecki put it in The Wisdom of Crowds, the SARS virus was sequenced in a matter of weeks by a network of labs sharing common technical standards; without those standards, it would have taken any one of them weeks to do the same job alone. The messages these labs sent back and forth had an elevated stickiness index because they were more transparently and efficiently codified than messages were back in the days before the technical standards were created.

So the question emerges, given the means to create common languages with enhanced stickiness properties, such as we have in advanced measurement models, what kinds of creativity and innovation can we expect when these languages are introduced in the domains of human, social, and natural capital markets? That is the question of the age, it seems to me…

Gladwell, M. (2000). The tipping point: How little things can make a big difference. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company.

Putnam, R. D. (1993). Making democracy work: Civic traditions in modern Italy. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Surowiecki, J. (2004). The wisdom of crowds: Why the many are smarter than the few and how collective wisdom shapes business, economies, societies and nations. New York: Doubleday.

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Just posted on www.economist.com in response to Sept 26 Schumpeter article

September 29, 2009

Let’s cut through the Gordian Knot to the real issue. That we manage what we measure is as close to an absolute truth as there ever was. What got us into this mess was the inadequacy of the vast majority of our measures. So-called “measures” that only get in the way of management are a sign that new standards, criteria, and methods of measurement are needed. The core issue we face is how to transform socialized externalities into capitalized internalities. Transaction costs are the most important and largest costs in any economic exchange. We reduce and control these via measurement. Human, social, and natural capital transaction costs are virtually uncontrolled and unmeasured. We need a metric system for universally uniform measures of abilities and skills, health, motivation, loyalty and trust, and environmental quality. And we needed it yesterday. But who is working on it? Who is talking about it? Most importantly, who is taking advantage of the huge strides that have been made in measurement science over the last 50 years, strides that have made measurement far more rigorous, practical, and flexible than anyone in business seems to know. As to business being an art, so is music, but music is played on and reproduced by some of the highest technology and finest precision instrumentation around. What we need to do is tune the instruments of the management arts and sciences so that we can harmonize our relationships, get with the beat, and sing the melodies we feel in our hearts and souls. For more information, see http://www.livingcapitalmetrics.com, or my blog at https://livingcapitalmetrics.wordpress.com.

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LivingCapitalMetrics Blog by William P. Fisher, Jr., Ph.D. is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License.
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The Ongoing Cultural Revolution

May 11, 2009

Jack Stenner sent a link to a recent piece by Volker Grassmuck at http://www.ip-watch.org/weblog/2009/05/11/the-world-is-going-flat-rate/#social, which includes the following comments:

VG: “It seems we are stumbling blindly into the future ahead of us, bumping against walls and into each other as we go along into the unfolding digital revolution. Our actions have more unintended and far-reaching consequences than we had thought, causing more collateral damage than good.”

WPF: Developmentally speaking, this is inevitable. It is the way in which we learn, and it is how we develop, in effect, eye-hand coordination. What we are up against right now is learning how to engage in this learning process safely, by bringing art and science into a context in which we can try things without hurting ourselves.

VG: “First of all, we need data, knowledge and understanding of the workings of the digital knowledge environment. It seems that we know more about the smallest particles and the largest galaxies than about ourselves as cultural animals. This requires systemic self-reflection and systematic research, developing a sensorium for the relevant factors and the dynamics in this space.”

WPF: A “sensorium”! Great term. What “systemic self-reflection and systematic research” amount to, in my terms, are an instrumentarium and associated metrological standards for each form of living human, social, and environmental capital. Instruments extend the senses, and so we could say that what we are doing is tuning the instruments of the human, social, and environmental sciences. Existing research is determining that the instruments are tunable, and that they can in principle be harmonized, but so far almost no one is yet concerned with setting up well-tempered scales as reference standards that all instruments can play in. The Lexile Framework for Reading (www.Lexile.com) is one exception.

VG: “…culture industries are as non-transparent as any industry. Disclosure and reporting requirements are needed beyond those that exist for public companies towards fiscal authorities, that the official statistics are based on. This should also include rules of access to data for scientific research so that public policy is not informed by industry’s self-reported numbers alone but also on independent scientific enquiry.”

WPF: Could not have said it better myself. Nothing to add.

VG: “Metadata are a key element for knowing and operating the knowledge environment. A registry of works and rights, ideally with rich metadata and fingerprints would be highly desirable. It is needed for trading rights, for knowing when a work comes into the public domain and for measuring and distributing levies, including the culture flat-rate. Parts are there…but none are comprehensive and they do not interoperate. This is a basic infrastructure. It should be shared and improved by all in the way free software is.”

WPF: Again, right on! See my LinkedIn page (www.linkedin.com/in/livingcapitalmetrics and my own web page (www.livingcapitalmetrics.com) for more on the metrics, the instruments, the scaling methods, and the research that has been going on in this domain for more than 50 years.

VG: “…whenever we decide upon in principle undecidable questions we are metaphysicians.”

WPF: Hence, my longstanding focus on issues of metaphysics and first philosophy. See my 2003 articles in Theory & Psychology, or for something shorter, seehttp://www.rasch.org/rmt/rmt184d.htm.

VG: “We cannot perceive ourselves to be apart from the knowledge environment, looking as through a peephole upon an unfolding universe. We are part of the knowledge environment. Whenever we act, we are changing ourselves and the universe as well. We are not citizens of an independent universe, whose regularities, rules and customs we may eventually discover, but participants of a conspiracy, whose customs, rules, and regulations we are now inventing.”

WPF: The shift to recognizing and accepting that we live in a participatory universe is a fundamental part of making our metaphysics explicit, as is elaborated in my Theory & Psychology articles.

VG: Mentions the UN Millenium Development Goals as an example of smart societal decision-making.

WPF: My analyses of the UN MDG data shows that the massively unmanageable data volume and the uninterpretable ordinal “metrics” (most people don’t even know they don’t add up) can be meaningfully scaled. The instruments are tuned so their measures harmonize, and data volume is reduced with no loss of information. Contact me for more information.

VG: “About us as homo sapiens we know (from Wikipedia) that what makes us special is “a highly developed brain, capable of abstract reasoning, language, introspection and problem-solving.” Globally networked computers give us the means for truly humanity-wide reasoning, introspection and problem solving. So let’s stick our brains together and work this out.”

WPF: Sticking our brains together requires that we use our global computer networks for distributed cognition. Though the network itself is in place, and the fundamentals of interactive communication are operable, we still do not have the common languages we need to think together. We need metrological standards and systems for tracing measures to reference standards. Instruments for measuring intangibles need to be calibrated to common metrics, not unlike the well- or equal-tempered musical scales, or time, temperature, distance, weight, kilowatts, etc.  We need to tune the instruments we need for arranging, orchestrating, and choreographing the beautiful music we could be making together. Similarly, markets for human, social, and natural capital, for literacy, numeracy, creativity, innovation, health, environmental quality, etc., need common currencies stable enough to trade on, and rule sets stable enough to guide decision making. Well said, Volker! You couldn’t have gotten much further than this in your articulation of the issues without expertise in measurement theory and practice.