Questions about measurement: If it is so important, why…?

If measurement is so important, why is measurement quality so uniformly low?

If we manage what we measure, why is measurement leadership virtually nonexistent?

If we can’t tell if things are getting better, staying the same, or getting worse without good metrics, why is measurement so rarely context-sensitive, focused, integrated, and interactive, as Dean Spitzer recommends it should be?

If quantification is valued for its rigor and convenience, why is no one demanding meaningful mappings of substantive, additive amounts of things measured on number lines?

If everyone is drowning in unmanageable floods of data why isn’t measurement used to reduce data volumes dramatically—and not only with no loss of information but with the addition of otherwise unavailable forms of information?

If learning and improvement are the order of the day, why isn’t anyone interested in the organizational and individual learning trajectories that are defined by hierarchies of calibrated items?

If resilient lean thinking is the way to go, why aren’t more measures constructed to retain their meaning and values across changes in item content?

If flexibility is a core value, why aren’t we adapting instruments to people and organizations, instead of vice versa?

If fair, just, and meaningful measurement is often lacking in judge-assigned performance assessments, why isn’t anyone estimating the consistency, and the leniency or harshness, of ratings—and removing those effects from the measures made?

If efficiency is valued, why does no one at all seem to care about adjusting measurement precision to the needs of the task at hand, so that time and resources are not wasted in gathering too much or too little data?

If it’s common knowledge that we can do more together than we can as individuals, why isn’t anyone providing the high quality and uniform information needed for the networked collective thinking that is able to keep pace with the demand for innovation?

Since the metric system and uniform product standards are widely recognized as essential to science and commerce, why are longstanding capacities for common metrics for human, social, and natural capital not being used?

If efficient markets are such great things, why isn’t anyone at all concerned about lubricating the flow of human, social, and natural capital by investing in the highest quality measurement obtainable?

If everyone loves a good profit, why aren’t we setting up human, social, and natural capital metric systems to inform competitive pricing of intangible assets, products, and services?

If companies are supposed to be organic entities that mature in a manner akin to human development over the lifespan, why is so little being done to conceive, gestate, midwife, and nurture living capital?

In short, if measurement is really as essential to management as it is so often said to be, why doesn’t anyone seek out the state of the art technology, methods, and experts before going to the trouble of developing and implementing metrics?

I suspect the answers to these questions are all the same. These disconnects between word and deed happen because so few people are aware of the technical advances made in measurement theory and practice over the last several decades.

For the deep background, see previous entries in this blog, various web sites (,,,, etc.), and an extensive body of published work (Rasch, 1960; Wright, 1977, 1997a, 1997b, 1999a, 1999b; Andrich, 1988, 2004, 2005; Bond & Fox, 2007; Fisher, 2009, 2010; Smith & Smith, 2004; Wilson, 2005; Wright & Stone, 1999, 2004).

There is a wealth of published applied research in education, psychology, and health care (Bezruczko, 2005; Fisher & Wright, 1994; Masters, 2007; Masters & Keeves, 1999). To find more search Rasch and the substantive area of interest.

For applications in business contexts, there is a more limited number of published resources (ATP, 2001; Drehmer, Belohlav, & Coye, 2000; Drehmer & Deklava, 2001; Ludlow & Lunz, 1998; Lunz & Linacre, 1998; Mohamed, et al., 2008; Salzberger, 2000; Salzberger & Sinkovics, 2006; Zakaria, et al., 2008). I have, however, just become aware of the November, 2009, publication of what could be a landmark business measurement text (Salzberger, 2009). Hopefully, this book will be just one of many to come, and the questions I’ve raised will no longer need to be asked.


Andrich, D. (1988). Rasch models for measurement. (Vols. series no. 07-068). Sage University Paper Series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences). Beverly Hills, California: Sage Publications.

Andrich, D. (2004, January). Controversy and the Rasch model: A characteristic of incompatible paradigms? Medical Care, 42(1), I-7–I-16.

Andrich, D. (2005). Georg Rasch: Mathematician and statistician. In K. Kempf-Leonard (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Social Measurement (Vol. 3, pp. 299-306). Amsterdam: Academic Press, Inc.

Association of Test Publishers. (2001, Fall). Benjamin D. Wright, Ph.D. honored with the Career Achievement Award in Computer-Based Testing. Test Publisher, 8(2). Retrieved 20 May 2009, from

Bezruczko, N. (Ed.). (2005). Rasch measurement in health sciences. Maple Grove, MN: JAM Press.

Bond, T., & Fox, C. (2007). Applying the Rasch model: Fundamental measurement in the human sciences, 2d edition. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Dawson, T. L., & Gabrielian, S. (2003, June). Developing conceptions of authority and contract across the life-span: Two perspectives. Developmental Review, 23(2), 162-218.

Drehmer, D. E., Belohlav, J. A., & Coye, R. W. (2000, Dec). A exploration of employee participation using a scaling approach. Group & Organization Management, 25(4), 397-418.

Drehmer, D. E., & Deklava, S. M. (2001, April). A note on the evolution of software engineering practices. Journal of Systems and Software, 57(1), 1-7.

Fisher, W. P., Jr. (2009, November). Invariance and traceability for measures of human, social, and natural capital: Theory and application. Measurement (Elsevier), 42(9), 1278-1287.

Fisher, W. P., Jr. (2010). Bringing human, social, and natural capital to life: Practical consequences and opportunities. Journal of Applied Measurement, 11, in press [Pre-press version available at].

Ludlow, L. H., & Lunz, M. E. (1998). The Job Responsibilities Scale: Invariance in a longitudinal prospective study. Journal of Outcome Measurement, 2(4), 326-37.

Lunz, M. E., & Linacre, J. M. (1998). Measurement designs using multifacet Rasch modeling. In G. A. Marcoulides (Ed.), Modern methods for business research. Methodology for business and management (pp. 47-77). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Masters, G. N. (2007). Special issue: Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Journal of Applied Measurement, 8(3), 235-335.

Masters, G. N., & Keeves, J. P. (Eds.). (1999). Advances in measurement in educational research and assessment. New York: Pergamon.

Mohamed, A., Aziz, A., Zakaria, S., & Masodi, M. S. (2008). Appraisal of course learning outcomes using Rasch measurement: A case study in information technology education. In L. Kazovsky, P. Borne, N. Mastorakis, A. Kuri-Morales & I. Sakellaris (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th WSEAS International Conference on Software Engineering, Parallel and Distributed Systems (Electrical And Computer Engineering Series) (pp. 222-238). Cambridge, UK: WSEAS.

Rasch, G. (1960). Probabilistic models for some intelligence and attainment tests (Reprint, with Foreword and Afterword by B. D. Wright, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980). Copenhagen, Denmark: Danmarks Paedogogiske Institut.

Salzberger, T. (2000). An extended Rasch analysis of the CETSCALE – implications for scale development and data construction., Department of Marketing, University of Economics and Business Administration, Vienna (WU-Wien) (

Salzberger, T. (2009). Measurement in marketing research: An alternative framework. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.

Salzberger, T., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2006). Reconsidering the problem of data equivalence in international marketing research: Contrasting approaches based on CFA and the Rasch model for measurement. International Marketing Review, 23(4), 390-417.

Smith, E. V., Jr., & Smith, R. M. (2004). Introduction to Rasch measurement. Maple Grove, MN: JAM Press.35.

Spitzer, D. (2007). Transforming performance measurement: Rethinking the way we measure and drive organizational success. New York: AMACOM.

Wilson, M. (2005). Constructing measures: An item response modeling approach. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Wright, B. D. (1977). Solving measurement problems with the Rasch model. Journal of Educational Measurement, 14(2), 97-116 [].

Wright, B. D. (1997a, June). Fundamental measurement for outcome evaluation. Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation State of the Art Reviews, 11(2), 261-88.

Wright, B. D. (1997b, Winter). A history of social science measurement. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 16(4), 33-45, 52 [].

Wright, B. D. (1999a). Fundamental measurement for psychology. In S. E. Embretson & S. L. Hershberger (Eds.), The new rules of measurement: What every educator and psychologist should know (pp. 65-104 []). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Wright, B. D. (1999b). Rasch measurement models. In G. N. Masters & J. P. Keeves (Eds.), Advances in measurement in educational research and assessment (pp. 85-97). New York: Pergamon.

Wright, B. D., & Stone, M. H. (1999). Measurement essentials. Wilmington, DE: Wide Range, Inc. [].

Wright, B. D., & Stone, M. H. (2004). Making measures. Chicago: Phaneron Press.

Zakaria, S., Aziz, A. A., Mohamed, A., Arshad, N. H., Ghulman, H. A., & Masodi, M. S. (2008, November 11-13). Assessment of information managers’ competency using Rasch measurement. iccit: Third International Conference on Convergence and Hybrid Information Technology, 1, 190-196 [].

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2 Responses to “Questions about measurement: If it is so important, why…?”

  1. 2010 in review « Livingcapitalmetrics’s Blog Says:

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  2. Review of “Advancing Social Impact Investments Through Measurement” « Livingcapitalmetrics’s Blog Says:

    […] hand, the omission of measurement scientists from that list of viewpoints adds another question to my long list of questions as to why measurement science is so routinely ignored by the very people who proclaim its […]

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